Winter 2011 Session
Graduate Diploma in Social Science
Nepā School of Social Sciences and Humanities
Instructor: Dr. Bandita Sijapati
This course on Research Methods is designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of social research including research design, data collection, data analysis, questions of validity, and ethical issues that must be considered while conducting research in the social sciences. The course is divided into three substantive sections: (a) theory and methods; (b) research design and tools for data collection; and (c) data analysis techniques.
Our examination of these topics will provide students with introduction to both theoretical as well as applied tools in each of these topics. We will begin the course with discussions about the general logic of scientific inquiry, mainly, the relationship between theory, research methods, and social understanding.
In sections two and three, we will discuss in greater detail qualitative and quantitative research methods, while concentrating on the basic techniques of conceptualizing a research project, developing various research instruments, data collection, identifying respondents, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In doing so, we will focus on analyzing the comparative strengths and weaknesses of each method while bearing in mind the general rule in research methodology that research questions should drive the research methods and data collection—not the other way around.
By the end of this course, students are expected to be familiar with the following:
- Principles of scientific inquiry in social science research, fundamentals of quantitative and qualitative research tools and the epistemological and methodological debates concerning different research methodologies including positivist theory, feminist analysis, Marxist analysis, grounded-theory, critical theory, etc.
- Gain an understanding of the main methods used by researchers in the social sciences such as survey research, ethnographic research, in-depth interviews, oral histories, participant observation, and archival research.
- Understand the practical application of research techniques such as administering surveys, conducting interviews, and writing fieldnotes along with the processes of sampling, data collection and data analysis.
In general, readings for each week are primarily divided into two parts. The first set of readings will provide students with the theoretical underpinnings of research methodology/ research tools. The second set of readings which are mostly based on Nepal, are intended to serve as supplements that will illustrate the theoretical principles presented in the former. While reading the second set, which I hope students will be able to skim through quickly, please pay attention to the methodology used and not so much to the content of findings/analysis. In order to help students navigate through the reading materials, each week, I will provide a set of “Reading Guidelines” that will contain questions/issues that students should bear in mind as they read these materials.
The final grade for the course will be based on the following:
Participation: The final grades for participation will be based on attendance and quality participation in the class discussions and lectures on a regular basis. By quality participation, I basically mean that students are able to demonstrate that they have read the material for discussion and are able to effectively contribute to the discussions. Participation grade will account for 20% of your final grade for the class.
Reflection Papers: There will be three reflection papers (approximately 2-3 pages, single-spaced) spread throughout the semester that will require students to analyze the theoretical precepts of research methods. Collectively, these reflection papers will account for 30% of your final grade. The topics as well as due dates for these reflection papers are as follows:
1. Reflection paper based on the readings and class discussions from Week 1 and 2, due on 1st Class of Week 3.
2. Reflection Paper based on the readings and class discussions from Weeks 3 to 5, due on 1st Class of Week 6.
3. Reflection Paper based on the readings and class discussions from Weeks 6 to 7, due on 1st Class of Week 8.
Group Projects/Assignment: To provide some experience in research methods, students will be divided into groups of three/four to conduct small projects that will require the application of some of the research tools and techniques that will be covered in class. These assignments will account for 30% of your final grade.
1. Group Assignment: Design a Survey Questionnaire to address a research problem/question of your interest. Due on 1st Class of Week 11.
2. Individual Assignment: Applying one of the research techniques for collecting qualitative data, e.g., participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, etc., write fieldnotes and a memo reflecting on your experience. Due on 1st Class of Week 13.
3. Group Assignment: Basic Statistical Analysis of the Nepal Living Standards Survey 2003-04 using SPSS. Due on 1st Class of Week 15.
Final Paper: In addition to the short assignments, students will be required to submit a final paper (approximately 6-10 pages) that will be due at the end of the semester. The students may choose their own topic for the paper but will have to be approved by the instructor. The final paper will account for 20% of your final grade.
DETAILED COURSE OUTLINE
PART I: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Week 1: Introduction to Social Science Research
Neuman, Lawrence, “Theory and Research,” in Social Research Methods, Allyn and Bacon, 2003, pp. 41-67.
Mills, C. Wright. “On Intellectual Craftmanship,” in Social Research Methods: A Reader, Clive Seale (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2008, pp. 19-25.
Durkheim, Emile. “Laws and Social Facts,” in Social Research Methods: A Reader, Clive Seale (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2008, pp. 31-34.
Wallace, Walter L. “The Logic of Science in Sociology,” in Social Research Methods: A Reader, Clive Seale (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2008, pp. 35-42.
Mishra, Chaitanya. “Social Research in Nepal: A Critique and a Proposal.” Essays on the Sociology of Nepal, FinePrint Books, 2007, pp. 323-363.
Week 2: Logic of Social Inquiry: Research Paradigms and Research Methods
Piergiorgio, Corbetta. “Paradigms of Social Research” in Social Research: Theory, Methods and Techniques, Piergiorgio Corbetta (ed), London: Sage Publications, 2003.
Michael, S. L., Alan, B., and Tim, F. L., “Philosophy of Social Research.” Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2004, pp: 817-820.
R., Murray Thomas, “The Qualitative and the Quantitative” in Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations. R. Murray Thomas (ed), Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2003, pp: 1-14.
Crook, Charles and Dean Garatt, “The Positivist Paradigm in Contemporary Social Science Research,” in Bridget Somekh and Cathy Lewin (ed.), Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Vistaar Publications, 2005, pp. 207-214.
S. Mansoob Murshed and Scott Gates. “Spatial–Horizontal Inequality and the Maoist
Insurgency in Nepal.” Review of Development Economics, Volume 9, No. 1, 121–134, 2005.
Assignment: Reflection Paper based on the readings and class discussions from Week 1 and 2 is due on 1st Class of Week 3
Week 3: Comparative Approach to Social Science Research
Paul, Pennings, Hans, Keman, and Jan, Kleinnijenhuis, 2006. “The comparative approach: theory and method.” In Doing Research in Political Science. Paul Pennings, Hans Keman, and Jan Kleinnijenhuis (eds). London: Sage Publications Ltd, 2006, pp. 18-29.
Stephan, Alfred. “The New Professionalism of Internal Warfare and Military Role Expansion,” in Arguing Comparative Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, pp. 23-38.
Lijphart, Arend. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 3, September, 1971, pp. 682-693.
Lawoti, Mahendra. “Ethnic Dimensions of the Maoist Insurgencies: Indigenous Groups’ Participation and Insurgency Trajectories in Nepal, Peru and India,” In The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, Mahendra Lawoti and Anup Pahari (ed), Routledge, New York, pp. 135-155.
Week 4: Grounded Theory and Historiography
Strauss, Anselm and Juliet Corbin, “Grounded Theory Methodology,” in Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, 1994, p. 273-285.
Caplan, Lionel. Land and Social Change in East Nepal, Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, Himal Books, 2nd Edition, pp. 11-52.
[Note: Skim through Caplan’s chapters to understand the methodology and how it has helped arrive at different conclusions about landholding patterns in Eastern Nepal.]
Tuchman, Gaye. “Historical Social Science: Methodologies, Methods and Meanings,” in Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, 1994, p. 306-323.
Onta, Pratyoush. 1996. “Creating a Brave Nepali Nation in British India: The Rhetoric of Jāti Improvement, Rediscovery of Bhanubhakta and the Writing of Bīr History.” Studies in Nepali History and Society. 1(1): 37-76.
[Note: Read pages 37-54 thoroughly to understand the principles of historiography, and skim through the remaining pages to understand how archival research has helped trace the making of Bhanubhkta a national icon of the Nepali nation.]
Week 5: Ethnography
Geertz, Clifford. “Being There,” in Social Research Methods: A Reader, Clive Seale (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2008, pp. 236-240.
Paul, ten Have, 2004. "Ethnography and Field Methods". Understanding Qualitative Research and Ethnomethodology, Paul ten Have (ed). London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2004.
Walsh, David. 1999. “Doing Ethnography,” in Clive Seale (ed.) Researching Society and Culture, London: Sage Publications. pp. 217-342.
Hangen, Susan. “Introduction: Democracy and Ethnic Politics,” The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Nepal: Democracy in the Margins, Routledge, pp. 1-18; and “Democratization and Local Politics: An MNO Village Government,” pp. 84-109.
[Note: Skim through pages 84-109 in order to understand how ethnographic methods used in the research project, detailed in the “Introduction” has helped arrive at the analysis presented in this chapter.]
Assignment: Reflection Paper based on the readings and class discussions from Week 3-5 is due on 1st Class of Week 6
Week 6: Marxist Analysis and Structural Functionalism
Parsons, Talcott. “An Outline of the Social System,” in Classical Sociological Theory, Calhoun et al. (ed), Madlen and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, pp. 366-385.
Merton, Robert K. “The Bearing of Empirical Research on Sociological Theory,” in Classical Sociological Theory, Calhoun et al. (ed), Madlen and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, pp. 405-412.
Lafferty, George. “Class, Politics and Social Theory: The Possibilities in Marxist Analysis.” Critical Sociology, Vol. 22, no. 2, 1996, pp. 51-65.
Blaike, Piers, James Cameron, David Seddon. “Centre and Periphery,” Nepal in Crisis, Adroit Publishers, 2007, pp. 72-94.
Week 7: Critical Theory and Feminist Methods
Harvey, David L. 1990. “Introduction: Critical Theory” Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 1, Spring, pp. 1-10.
Carla, Willig, and Wendy, Stainton-Rogers, 2008. “Foucauldian Discourse Analysis.” The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology. Carla Willig, and Wendy Stainton-Rogers (eds). London: Sage Publications Ltd, pp. 91-108.
Cancian, Francesca M. 1992. “Feminist Science: Methodologies that Challenge Inequality” Gender and Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, December, pp. 623-642.
Sharlene, Nagy Hesse-Biber, and Patricia, Leavy, 2006. “Feminist Media Ethnography in India: Exploring Power, Gender, and Culture in the Field.” Emergent Methods in Social Research. Sharlene Nagy Hesse-Biber, and Patricia Leavy (eds). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2006, pp. 337-368.
Assignment: Reflection Paper based on the readings and class discussions from Week 6-7 is due on 1st Class of Week 8
PART II: FROM THEORY TO DATA COLLECTION
Week 8: Research Design, Constructing Reliability and Measuring Validity
Terry, E. Hedrick, Leonard, Bickman, and Debra, J. Rog, 1993. “Selecting a Research Design.” Applied Research Design. Terry E. Hedrick, Leonard Bickman, and Debra J. Rog (eds). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc., 1993, pp. 38-67.
Ruane, Janet M. “Some Perfectly Valid Points: Measurement, Internal, and External Validity” in Essentials of Research Methods: A Guide To Social Science Research, Blackwell Publishing, 2005, pp. 92-103.
Fowler, F.J. 2002. “Designing Questions to be Good Measures.” In Survey Research Methods, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 3rd edition, pp. 69-93.
Glewwe, Paul. 2002. “An Overview of Questionnaire Design for Household Surveys in Developing Countries,” in Household Surveys in Developing and Transitional Countries: Design, Implementation and Analysis, United Nations.
Week 9: Methods for Collecting Quantitative Data
Malcolm, Williams. “From Question to Method.” in Making Sense of Social Research, Malcolm Williams (ed). London: SAGE Publications, Ltd, 2003, pp: 30-48.
John, Brewer, and Albert, Hunter. “Collecting Data With Multiple Methods.” Foundations of Multimethod Research. John Brewer and Albert Hunter (eds). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc., 2006, pp. 58-77.
Moore, David S. “Producing Data: Sampling” in The Basic Practice of Statistics, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 3rd Edition, pp. 175-190.
Neuman, Lawrence, “Survey Research” (Chapter 10), in Social Research Methods, Allyn and Bacon, 2003, pp. 263-305.
Sharma, Sudhindra and Pawan Kumar Sen. “Political Opinion Poll in Nepal’s Context.” Studies in Nepali History and Society. Vol. 10, No. 2, December 2005, pp. 321-358.
Group Assignment: Design a Survey Questionnaire to address a research problem/question of your interest. Due on 1st Class of Week 11
Week 10: Experimental Research and Content/Textual Analysis
Neuman, Lawrence, “Experimental Research” (Chapter 9), in Social Research Methods, Allyn and Bacon, 2003, pp. 237-258.
Carolyn L. Hafer and Laurent Begue. “Experimental Research on Just-World Theory: Problems, Developments, and Future Challenges.” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 131, No. 1, 2005, pp. 128–167.
Berg, Bruce L. 1989. “Introduction to Content Analysis” Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Allyn and Bacon, pp. 105-127.
Laura Ahearn. “Meeting by Way of a Letter.” Invitation to Love: Literacy, Love Letters and Social Change in Nepal. Adharsh Books, pp. 119-145
Week 11: Methods of Collecting Qualitative Data: Field Research, Interviews, Participant Observation
Neuman, Lawrence W. 2003. “Field Research” (Chapter 13) in Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Allyn and Bacon, pp. 363-400.
Ashutosh Varshney. “Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond.” World Politics, Vol. 53, No. 3 (Apr., 2001), pp. 362-398.
Gerson, Kathleen and Ruth Horowitz. “Observation and Interviewing: Options and Choices in Qualitative Research” in Tim May (ed.) Qualitative Research in Action. Sage Publications, pp. 199-224.
Mark Licehty. 2003. “Middle-Class Consciousness: Hanging Between the High and the Low.” Suitably Modern: Making Middle-Class Culture in Kathmandu, Martin Chautari, 61-86.
Week 12: Methods of Collecting Qualitative Data: Case Study, Focus Group Discussions, Action Research
Rosaline Barbour and John Schostak, “Interviewing and Focus Groups,” in Bridget Somekh and Cathy Lewin (ed.), Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Vistaar Publications, 2005, pp. 41-48.
Sheila Stark and Harry Torrance, “Case Study,” in Bridget Somekh and Cathy Lewin (ed.), Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Vistaar Publications, 2005, pp. 33-40.
Marie Lecomte-Tilouine. “Terror in a Maoist Model village, mid-western Nepal.” Dialectical Anthropology, Vol. 33, 2009, pp. 383–401.
Susan Noffke and Bridget Somekh, “Action Research,” in Bridget Somekh and Cathy Lewin (ed.), Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Vistaar Publications, 2005, pp. 89-96.
Banjade, Mani R, Harisharan Luintel, and Hari R Neupane. “Action Research Experience on Democratizing Knowledge in Community Forestry in Nepal.” In Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources Management, Policy and Institutions in Nepal, edited by Hemant R. Ojha, Netra P. Timsina, Ram B. Chhetri, and Krishna P. Paudel, IDRC, 2007.
Assignment: Applying one of the research techniques for collecting qualitative data, e.g., participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, etc., write fieldnotes and a memo reflecting on your experience. Due on 1st Class of Week 13
PART III: DATA ANALYSIS AND WRITING
Week 13: Analyzing, Exploring and Summarizing Quantitative Data
Derek, Layder, “Analyzing Data with Theory in Mind,” In Sociological Practice, Derek Layder (ed). London: Sage Publications Ltd, 1998, pp: 51-78.
Neuman, Lawrence, “Analysis of Quantitative Data” (Chapter 12), in Social Research Methods, Allyn and Bacon, 2003, pp. 331-360.
Moore, David S. “Picturing Distributions with Graphs” in The Basic Practice of Statistics, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 3rd Edition, pp. 3-21.
Moore, David S. “Describing Distributions with Numbers” in The Basic Practice of Statistics, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 3rd Edition, pp. 32-48.
Group Assignment: Basic Statistical Analysis of the Nepal Living Standards Survey 2003-04 using SPSS is due on 1st Class of Week 15
Week 14: Gathering and Analyzing Qualitative Data
Emerson, Robert, Rachel Fretz and Linda Shaw. 1995. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 169-210.
Neuman, Lawrence W. 2003. “Analysis of Qualitative Data” Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Allyn and Bacon, pp. 438-467.
Antony, Bryant, and Kathy, Charmaz, 2007. “The Coding Process and Its Challenges.” The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory. Antony Bryant, and Kathy Charmaz (eds). London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2007, pp. 265-287.
Cameron, Mary. “Many Dalits: Debating Identity in a New Nepal.” In Dalits of Nepal: Towards Dignity, Citizenship and Justice, Arjun Guneratne (ed)., Association of Nepal and Himalayan Studies, Social Science Baha, Himal Books, Nepal, 2010, pp. 7-43.
Week 15: Ethics and Social Science Research
David Hamilton, “Politics and Ethics in Qualitative Research,” in Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, 1994, p. 83-98.
Charles Helm and Mario Morelli. “Stanley Milgram and the Obedience Experiment: Authority, Legitimacy, and Human Action.” Political Theory, Vol. 7, No. 3, August 1979, pp. 321-345.
Neuman, Lawrence, “American Sociological Association Code of Ethics” (Appendix A) in Social Research Methods, Allyn and Bacon, 2003, pp. 501-512.
Ortner, Sherry. “Beginning.” Life and Death on Mt. Everest. Oxford University Press, pp. 3-25.
Week 16: Review Week